How To Use: Tone Function - Arduino Playing The James Bond Theme

On this tutorial you will see how to use the tone function to play monophonic music.

Materials List: 

1 x Arduino Uno R3

1 x Breadboard

1 x Speaker 8 Ω / 0,25 W

1 x Rotary Potentiometer 10 KΩ

1 x Capacitor 100μF / 25 V

Jumpers

How it works:

The syntax of tone function is:

tone (pin, frequency, duration);

The parameters are:

 

pin: the pin on which to generate the tone

frequency: the frequency of the tone in hertz - unsigned int

duration: the duration of the tone in milliseconds (optional) - unsigned long

The tone function generates a square wave of the specified frequency on a pin during the time of duration field (optional).

Each musical note is determined by a frequency and you can see on table below the frequencies:

Based on this table and pentagram above the archive pitches.h (of toneMelody example) was created.

The array melody[] is used to store the notes, using names to correspond to the note and frequency.

For example, the frequency of note A4 (A for "La" and 4 for the 4th octave) is 440 Hz in the array it will be called NOTE_A4.

The musical score represents the notes and the duration by symbols on the pentagram.

Below you see clef-G and clef-F.

The duration is determined by the following symbols:

In array noteDurations[], the durations were represented by numbers.See table below.

Symbol 

Value in array

whole note

1

half note

2

quarter note

4

eighth note

8

sixteenth note

16

           thirty-second note

32

            sixty-fourth note

64 

 

The potentiometer was used to control volume and the capacitor as coupling.

Below you see the circuit on Fritzing.

 

The Sketch:

Verify circuit, and upload Sketch to Arduino:


#include "pitches.h"
#define NO_SOUND 0 // make the rests in music

//array of notes
int melody[] = {
  /*NOTE_G4,NOTE_G4,NO_SOUND,NOTE_G4,NOTE_G4,NO_SOUND,NOTE_G4,NOTE_G4,NOTE_G4,NOTE_G4,NOTE_G4,
   NOTE_B3,NOTE_G3,NOTE_C4,NOTE_G3,NOTE_CS4,NOTE_G3,NOTE_C4,NOTE_G3,NOTE_B3,NOTE_G3,NOTE_C4,NOTE_G3,NOTE_CS4,NOTE_G3,NOTE_C4,NOTE_G3,
   NOTE_E4,NOTE_F4,NOTE_F4,NOTE_F4,NOTE_F4,NOTE_E4,NOTE_E4,NOTE_E4,
   NOTE_E4,NOTE_G4,NOTE_G4,NOTE_G4,NOTE_G4,NOTE_E4,NOTE_E4,NOTE_E4,*/
   //Introduction
  NOTE_E4,NOTE_F4,NOTE_F4,NOTE_F4,NOTE_F4,NOTE_E4,NOTE_E4,NOTE_E4,
  NOTE_E4,NOTE_G4,NOTE_G4,NOTE_G4,NOTE_G4,NOTE_E4,NOTE_E4,NOTE_E4,
  NOTE_E4,NOTE_F4,NOTE_F4,NOTE_F4,NOTE_F4,NOTE_E4,NOTE_E4,NOTE_E4,
  NOTE_E4,NOTE_G4,NOTE_G4,NOTE_G4,NOTE_G4,NOTE_E4,NOTE_E4,NOTE_E4,
  NOTE_DS5,NOTE_D5,NOTE_B4,NOTE_A4,NOTE_B4,
  NOTE_E4,NOTE_G4,NOTE_DS5,NOTE_D5,NOTE_G4,NOTE_B4,
  NOTE_B4,NOTE_FS5,NOTE_F5,NOTE_B4,NOTE_D5,NOTE_AS5,
  NOTE_A5,NOTE_F5,NOTE_A5,NOTE_DS6,NOTE_D6,NO_SOUND
};

// note duration: 1 = whole note, 2 = half note, 4 = quarter note, 8 = eighth note, etc.
int noteDurations[] = {
  /*8,8,2,8,8,2,16,8,16,8,8,
   2,4,2,4,2,4,2,4,2,4,2,4,2,4,2,4,
   8,16,16,8,4,8,8,8,
   8,16,16,8,4,8,8,8,*/
  8,16,16,8,4,8,8,8,
  8,16,16,8,4,8,8,8,
  8,16,16,8,4,8,8,8,
  8,16,16,8,4,8,8,8,
  8,2,8,8,1,
  8,4,8,4,8,8,
  8,8,4,8,4,8,
  4,8,4,8,3
};

int pace = 1450; // change pace of music("speedy")
void setup() {
  for (int Note = 0; Note <54; Note++) {//counter of Notes (54 limit the array)
    int duration = pace/noteDurations[Note];//Adjust duration with the pace of music
    tone(8, melody[Note],duration); //Play note

// to distinguish the notes, set a minimum time between them.
    delay(duration*1.2);
  }
}

void loop() {
  //to repeat song, push reset button.
}
//End of Sketch

Let's listen James Bond!!!

Reference:

http://arduino.cc/en/Tutorial/tone

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Note_value

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Clef

 

Views: 47156

Comment by نهاد عبدالله حسين السلمان on January 14, 2013 at 4:31am
Hi - this truly stunning what spatial, which could create such programs audio Effects
Comment by نهاد عبدالله حسين السلمان on January 14, 2013 at 4:43am

You could get this project file

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